Aurora University dates back to the Aurora College founded by Ma Xiangbo. In 1903, Ma Xiangbo founded the Aurora College with the support of the French Jesuits. In 1911, the Aurora College Prep School of Medicine was established. Students needed to complete two years of prep studies and four years of clinical practice for graduation. The teaching hospitals were Guangci Hospital (Ruijin Hospital) and Andang Hospital (Luwan District Central Hospital). In 1914, Institute of Natural Science and Medicine was established with a four-year schooling system. The following year, it was renamed Institute of Medicine with a six-year schooling system. Graduates were conferred a doctoral degree. The school curriculum and syllabus were all patterned after French medical schools. In 1932, Aurora University was approved by the Ministry of Education to change Institute of Medicine into School of Medicine. Bussiere, a physician from the French Embassy in China, was appointed the dean. The Department of Dentistry with a four-year schooling system was added. Bussiere was succeeded by Flemé in 1938. In 1948, the Department of Dentistry was renamed the School of Dentistry, with a six-year schooling system. In 1949, there were 51 teachers, 343 students, and 27 graduates that year. In 1950, the School of Dentistry changed its name back to the Department of Dentistry. In 1951, Shanghai College of Dentistry was merged into the Department of Dentistry of Aurora University. Guangci Hospital was the teaching hospital.
Aurora University was revoked in 1952, and a total of 579 students graduated there. Aurora University School of Medicine merged with St. John's University School of Medicine and Tongde Medical College in 1952 to form the Shanghai Second Medical College.