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St. John’s University School of Medicine
St. John's University was established by the American Episcopal Church in 1879. With a history of 73 years, it was the oldest institute of higher education set up by church.
St. John’s College Faculty of Medicine was originated from Hongkou Tongren Hospital in 1880. In 1896 St John’s University went through major restructuring. The medicine faculty became a stand-alone department and H. W. Boone became the department chair. Students and faculties from Tonren Hospital were incorporated into the newly setup department. In 1906, St. John’s College was renamed St. John’s University and was registered in the United States. The curriculum was changed from the four-year program to seven-year doctoral program. In 1914, Guangzhou Pennsylvania Medical University was incorporated into St. John’s. The name was slightly changed to St. John’s University School of Medicine in 1947. Ni Bao-chun was appointed as the head. By 1949, St. John’s already had 59 professors, 298 students and 25 recent graduates. Tonren Hospital, which had 400 beds during that time, was the primary teaching hospital.
St John’s had always put its focus on the quality of education.In the long years of its existence, it painstakingly cultivated and graduated 466 people; and almost all its alumni became experts in different fields in medicine. During the reorganization of the nation's institutions of higher learning in September 1952, St. John’s University was revoked, and its school of medicine was merged with Aurora University School of Medicine and Tong-De Medical College to form Shanghai Second Medical College.
Aurora University School of Medicine
Aurora University originated from Aurora College founded by Ma Xiang-bo, which got the support from the French Catholic Jesuits. In 1911, Aurora College set up the major of Advanced Placement Course for Medicine, in which students studied the required courses of medicine for 2 years and spent 4 years for clinical internship before they graduated, with Hospital Sainte-Marie ( now Ruijin Hospital) and An Dang Hospital (now the Center Hospital for Luwan District)as teaching hospitals.In 1914, the major of Natural Medicine was established which took 4 years before graduation, and was changed into the major of Medicine which required 6-year studies for medical doctorates in 1915. The school curriculum and syllabus all consulted those used for students majoring in Medicine in France. In1932, the Ministry of Education approved the proposal to name the institute Aurora University School of Medicine, to appoint the physician of the French Embassy Bussiere as dean of the school and to add the Department of Dentistry whose courses must be finished in four years. In 1938, P. Flaimet took over the position as dean of the school. Department of Dentistry was renamed School of Dentistry with its required studies prolonged to 6 years in 1948. In 1949, there were 51 teachers, 343 students in school and 27 students due for graduation that year. In 1950, School of Dentistry reused its name as the Department of Dentistry. In 1951, Shanghai Dental College merged into Aurora University Department of Dentistry.Hospital Sainte-Marie was its teaching hospital. In 1952, Aurora University was revoked, having cultivated and graduated 579 students in its long years of existence. Its school of medicine was merged with St. John's University School of Medicine and Tong-De Medical College to form Shanghai Second Medical College.
Tong-De Medical College
In 1918, Shen Yun-fei,a member of Chinese German Medical Association, proposed to establish a medical school and named the school Tong-De Medical Special School in August of the same year. Jiang Feng-zhi, president of Chinese German Medical Association, was appointed as president and Shen Yun-fei dean of studies. The school had a 5-year medical program and started enrollment in September. In 1919, the school established the affiliated Tong-De Hospital.
In 1920, the association decided to make the school itself an independent entity. Kang You-wei became the head of the board of trustees, and by 1925, Huang Chu-jiu took over the seat. In 1932, the school’s board of Trustee was reorganized. Shao Li-zi became the chairman; Gu Liu-qi became the school’s president. Between 1918 and 1935, Tongde Medical Special School ran a five-year medical program. By 1935, the new campus buildings were accomplished and the school's name was officially changed to Private Tong-De Medical College by September of the same year. The curriculum was also changed from the five-year program to the six-year program.
In 1952, Tong-De Medical College was merged with St. John's University School of Medicine and Aurora University School of Medicine to form Shanghai Second Medical College. Tong-De marked an important milestone in the history of Chinese higher education because it was a privately-owned medical school run by the Chinese in Shanghai, China, and it had made significant contribution to China’s healthcare development and progress.
course of development
In 1952,St. John's University School of Medicine, Aurora University Medical School and Tong-De Medical College were merged into one single school, Shanghai Second Medical college. In October 24 of the same year, Shanghai Second Medical College had its first commencement.
The school then followed a provisional teaching protocol issued by the Ministry of Education with the creation of the Teaching Research Promoting Committee, guiding the teaching with the thought of dialectical materialism,adopting textbooks from the Soviet Union, and emphasizing scientific, ideological, and logical aspects. During the 1960s, the policy of "readjustment, consolidation, improvement, and enhancement" was introduced, which was an attempt to promote the fruits of educational reforms and rectify problems in teaching. After the CPC’s Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, orders were gradually restored and normal teaching went back on track, with renewed effort to carry on education reforms, strengthen and enlarge the faculty and to improve the administration through better coordination among different departments and sections.
During the 50s and 60s, the school had put a strong focus on scientific research and development. Significant results were obtained from the researches of the faculties, especially in the study of blood-flukes (schistosomiasis control), an concerted effort of experts in answer to the Party's call, the combination of Western medicine with TCM and birth planning.
Shanghai Second Medical College was famous for being the expert in large-area burn recovery and replantation of severed limbs. It also carried out the first cases of cardiac mitral valve junction closedheart dissection nationwide and was the first to use atropine in the treatment of antimony poisoning caused by Aspen syndrome. The school was the first to use acupuncture anesthesia in open heart operation with cardiopulmonary-bypass, made the first correction of orbital hypertelorism syndrome and did the first domestic allogeneic orthotropic liver transplantation. Finally, the school also successfully accomplished Asia's first heart transplant operation and the world's first hand reconstruction.
In 2005, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Shanghai Second Medical University merged into the new Shanghai Jiao Tong University under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Education. Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM) was formally inaugurated on the basis of the former Shanghai Second Medical University and the former Jiaotong University School of Medicine, jointly supported by Shanghai Municipal Government and the Ministry of Education.
SJTUSM has all along adhered to the principle of high-quality education and elite cultivation. In 2005, 8-year programs of clinical medicine were approved by the Ministry of Education. By introducing the advanced pedigogical theories and methods, and making designs from a strategically advantageous position, SJTUSM has formulated an overall plan incorporating the learning of general knowledge, basic medicine, clinical medicine, and the ability to do scientific research, which is the basis for SJTUSM's characteristic student-centered and ability-oriented system for medical education.
Taking advantage of the merger and revolving around the strategy of development through the acquisition of talents, SJTUSM has continuously intensified the reform in research systems and laid emphasis on securing research results of originality, especially the promotion of integration and cooperation of medical, scientific, and engineering subjects, so as to effectively raise competitiveness in science and technology.
As a result of seizing the opportunity in the development of life science and translational medicine, and breaking the barrier between basic and clinical medicine to favor their combination, SJTUSM has enhanced the academic development in a healthy way. By establishing the system of Principal Investigator, it has bought about an invigorating situation in which introduced talents and home-grown talents can thrive together.
In terms of healthcare resources and services provided, SJTUSM has now under its administration 7 affiliated general hospitals, and 5 affiliated special hospitals, with the total number of beds for patients reaching 12,404, one-fifth of the total capacity in Shanghai; hospitals under SJTUSM registered around 220,78,000 outpatients and emergency cases (person/time) a year currently, one-fourth of the total number in the city, and the number of surgeries performed accounts for one-third.